Sunday 21 July 2024




The noun century comes from the Latin word centuria, which was a group of 100, particularly a group of 100 Roman soldiers (one of 16 such groups in a Roman legion).

A century is a period of a hundred years that is used when stating a date. For example, the 19th century was the period from 1801 to 1900.


One is based on strict construction, while the other is based on popular perception. According to the strict construction, the 1st century AD began with AD 1 and ended with AD 100, the 2nd century spanning the years 101 to 200, with the same pattern continuing onward.

Years of the Gregorian calendar, which is currently in use, are counted from AD 1. Thus, the 1st century comprised the years AD 1 through AD 100. The second century started with AD 101 and continued through AD 200. By extrapolation, the 20th century comprises the years AD 1901-2000.

Who ruled the 1st century?

Roman Empire in the first century A.D. Two thousand years ago, the world was ruled by Rome. From England to Africa and from Syria to Spain, one in every four people on earth lived and died under Roman law.


The Early Modern Times lasted from the end of the 15th century to the Industrial Revolution at the end of the 18th century, circa 1450/92 to 1750/92. Modern Times are the period from Enlightenment and the 18th century until today.

Although the leap forward in human progress began in the 19th century with the Industrial Revolution, the greatest strides have taken place in the 20th century.

 The 20th century was dominated by significant geopolitical events that reshaped the political and social structure of the globe: World War I, the Spanish flu pandemic, World War II, and the Cold War.

 We live in the 21st Century, that is, the 2000s.  And the 21st century is from 2001 to 2100.

Similarly when we say "20th Century," we are referring to the 1900s. All this because, according to the calendar we use, the 1st Century included the years 1-100 (there was no year zero), and the 2nd Century, the years 101-200. Similarly, when we say 2nd Century B.C.E.

The 21st century is the most important century in human history. At least that's what a number of thinkers say. Their argument is pretty simple: Mostly, it's that there are huge challenges that we have to surmount this century to get any future at all, making this the most consequential of all centuries so far.



To complete a century, one must complete 100 years; 10 centuries is called Millennium 

We are living in 2024. We are living in the 21st century, we have crossed 20 centuries each of 100 years.

(This blogpost is a part of Blogchatter's Bloghop.

Saturday 20 July 2024




Nutrients working together in our meals is called FOOD SYNERGY and it's a great example of the idea that the whole works greater than the sum of its parts.

Nutrient synergy refers to the concept that the combined effects of two or more nutrients working together have a greater physiological impact on the body than when each nutrient is consumed individually.

The food synergy concept supports the idea of dietary variety and of selecting nutrient-rich foods. The more we understand about our own biology and that of plants and animals, the better we will be able to discern the combinations of foods, rather than supplements that best promote health.

 Practicing food synergy involves choosing and combining foods in a way that maximizes their nutritional benefits. In general, focusing on a varied and balanced diet that includes a variety of whole foods and nutrient-dense sources can help you practice food synergy and optimize your health.

 When all nutrients are present in sufficient amounts, they work synergistically, harmoniously supporting our well-being. The wheels turn smoothly, supporting optimal health. Food synergy can help those wheels turn by making nutrients more available for us.

For example

·       Pairing vitamin C-rich foods with iron-rich ones improves iron absorption. Complementary nutrients and enzymes work synergistically, aiding each other's absorption and utilization in the body.

·       Avocados and Red Peppers. Avocados are another healthy fat, and red peppers are another vitamin A source, so the same principle holds with increased vitamin A absorption when they are combined.

   Beans and rice are both good sources of protein and fiber, but when consumed together, they create a complete protein source. 


 The benefits of food synergy have been shown in ways such as better regulating appetite and satiety, improving digestion, allowing for increased nutrient absorption, enhancing the ability to fight disease and toxins, and much more.

 Nutrient synergy can improve brain health by enhancing cognitive function, supporting neuroprotective mechanisms, and regulating depression or anxiety as certain combinations of nutrients work synergistically to promote optimal brain function and reduce the risk of neurodegenerative diseases.

 Dr Singhwal confirms that “Food synergy focuses on how nutrients and bioactive compounds in whole foods interact and combine. When you eat these nutrients together in whole foods, it can be better for your health compared to eating them separately or alone.”

Do consider food synergy for better health.

Friday 19 July 2024




A fast-growing city at the center of an agricultural region noted for agricultural products such as tomato, mango, groundnut, tamarind, etc., Mainly the TOMATO market in Madanapalle is the biggest tomato market in Andhra Pradesh.

Madanapalle is the nearest railway station, located just 27 km from Horsley Hills.

Also called as Yenugulla Mallamma Konda, this place is home to the largest Banyan tree and the oldest Eucalyptus Tree, it is lined with dense forest areas with 113 species of birds.

The hilly outcrop rises steeply to altitudes of 4,000ft, which ensures cool climes throughout the year and misty vistas in the monsoons. Horsley Hills was initially known as Yenugu Mallama Konda after a young girl who, it is said, was reared by elephants and cured the ailments of the area and its residents.

The Horsley Hills are popular among local tourists who go to see their natural beauty and to escape from the heat of the plains. The Mallamma temple is another major tourist and pilgrim centre.

Located about 127 km away from Tirupati, Horsley Hills are named after WH Horsley, who was the collector of Kapada, between 1863-1867. It is said that he was in awe of the place and made a summer bungalow, which is now called the Forest Bungalow. The house is a beautiful structure made with tiles imported from England.

 Horsley Ghats – A road connects Horsley Hills, a hill station in Chittoor district, with Madanapalle, the nearest town. It has 12 hairpin bends.

 Winters in Horsley slopes begin in December and last till February. Horsley Hills' weather during these months and the temperature goes between an agreeable 10°C to 22°C. This is also the best time to visit Horsley Hills. June represents the start of Monsoon season in Horsley Hills, which lasts until September.

It's doable in one day, but I'd recommend a weekend trip with a one-night stay. Not only will you get enough time to rest but also have the time to explore other places around Horsley Hills.

Thursday 18 July 2024


"Do not judge me by my successes, judge me by how many times I fell down and got back up again." Nelson Mandela

He won the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1993, along with South Africa's president at the time, F.W. de Klerk, for having led the transition from apartheid to a multiracial democracy. Mandela is also known for being the first black president of South Africa, serving from 1994 to 1999.

Known and loved around the world for his commitment to peace, negotiation and reconciliation, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was South Africa's first democratically elected president (1994-1999). Mandela was an anti-apartheid revolutionary and political leader, as well as a philanthropist with an abiding love for children.

 Nelson Mandela's writings included I Am Prepared to Die, No Easy Walk to Freedom; The Struggle Is My Life. 

 Long Walk to Freedom is his moving and exhilarating autobiography, destined to take its place among the finest memoirs of history's greatest figures. Here for the first time, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela told the extraordinary story of his life -- an epic of struggle, setback, renewed hope, and ultimate triumph.

The book is an autobiography. It follows Mandela's life growing up in apartheid South Africa and fighting against this regime. Two key themes in Long Walk to Freedom are racial inequality and unity. Today, Mandela is remembered as a key anti-racist figure of the twentieth century.

 Here Mandela, a South African freedom fighter and a political prisoner for 27 years tells his own saga of how he helped his black countrymen throw off their apartheid chains, how the African National Congress waged and won its struggle, and how he became his nation's first black president.

The central theme of "Long Walk to Freedom" revolves around the relentless pursuit of freedom, justice, and equality. Nelson Mandela's life is a testament to the power of perseverance and the determination to challenge oppressive systems.

The book highlights the importance of perseverance and resilience in the face of adversity, making it a powerful source of motivation. Through Mandela's captivating storytelling, readers gain insight into the human spirit and the transformative power of forgiveness and reconciliation.

The brave man is not the one who does not feel afraid, but he is the one who conquers that fear. Mandela said that every man has his duties toward his country and community too.

Desmond Tutu called Nelson Mandela a moral colossus and a global icon of forgiveness and reconciliation. Mandela taught us that change is almost always possible, even in the face of seemingly insurmountable odds, when gutsy leaders stand together, question the unquestionable, and challenge the status quo.

Let us read his books, remember his teachings, and salute the great soul on this day.



Wednesday 17 July 2024


Frosting is thick and fluffy, and is used to coat the outside (and often the inner layers) of a cake. Icing is thinner and glossier than frosting, and can be used as a glaze or for detailed decorating.

1. Heat the sugar and water stirring until the sugar dissolves.

2. When all the grains of sugar have dissolved, bring the syrup to a boil.

3. Boil without stirring to 115 degrees Celsius

4. Whisk up the whites stiffly

5. Remove syrup from heat, allow to cool until the bubbles subside

6. Pour on to the egg whites beating till the required consistency is reached.

7. Add essence and colouring if desired.

8. Pour over cake . Allow icing to run down and cover the sides of the cake.

Tuesday 16 July 2024




Noon chai, also called sheer chai, gulabi chai, Kashmiri tea, or pink tea, is a traditional tea beverage, originating from the Indian subcontinent, most probably from the Kashmir Valley, made with gunpowder tea, milk, and baking soda. Chai is an easy-to-make beverage that is liked by people all over the world.

Often called Pink Tea, Kashmiri chai is a milk tea characterized by its dusty pink color and garnishing of crushed nuts. It's brewed with green tea leaves and baking soda, and then mixed with milk to give it a distinct pink color.

It is made traditionally in 'Samovar' - a brass/copper kettle which has a central cavity into which you are supposed to put burning coals. Some space is left for the ingredients to warm up in the vessel and there is a nozzle to pour out the tea.

 Samovars, common household name in Kashmir is a traditional kettle used to brew, boil and serve tea & Kehwa.

A samovar is a traditional Kashmiri kettle used to brew, boil and serve Kashmiri salted tea (Noon Chai) and kahwa. Kashmiri samovars are made of copper with engraved or embossed calligraphic motifs. … Inside a samovar there is a fire-container in which charcoal and live coals are placed.

 Inside the samovar, there is a tube shaped fire- container in which charcoal is stored. The charcoal is burned in the container or live coal is used to provide constant heat to the tea stored in a space around this fire-container.

The Samovar was used to boil the water to prepare tea. Other Persian and Turkish variants of the Samovars existed as well and it is with the passage of time that this savoir-faire reached the mountainous terrain of Kashmir during the time of Hazrat Shahi Hamadan, five centuries ago.

That’s the story of Kashmir’s special tea and about Samovar in which it is made.

Monday 15 July 2024




 The Divya Kshetram TIRUKKARAKAM  is in the prakaram (the four walls) of Ulagalanda perumal temple in Kanchipuram.

The presiding deity is Karunakara perumal. The Goddess is Padmamani Thayar. Details of the original temple, sthala vriksham, and sacred water are not available, except from the pasuram of Tirumangai Azhwar, where in it is mentioned that the presiding deity is in a standing posture, the sacred water is Akraya theertham and the sanctum sanctorum is Vamana vimanam.

Sunday 14 July 2024




In the olden days, when no invertors, emergency lamps, mobile torches, or battery torches doesn’t exist. The only savior to provide light when the power goes off is a candle, mud lamp, or lantern where the light glows with the help of a wick and kerosene.

Children in the household find joy in the darkness by playing with a candlelight casting shadows on the wall with hands

You should have observed the shadow's size decrease when you moved the object farther from the light source and increase when you moved it closer. You block a much larger portion of the light from the source when your object is closer, which increases the size of the shadow.

In later days, this play has become an art form. Hand shadows are an ancient form of puppetry (perhaps predating all other forms) in which the puppeteer uses his or her hands to cast shadows of animals, people, and objects onto a flat surface.

 Shadowgraphy or ombromanie is the art of performing a story or show using images made by hand shadows. It can be called "cinema in silhouette". Performers are titled as shadowgraphists or shadowgraphers. It can be traced back to the 18th Century, although the idea is probably much older.

Hand Shadows [Also called Ombromanie] a shadow theatre technique using the hands of the actor. This can be accompanied with or without accessories made of cardboard, zinc cut-outs, or other objects. Following the position of the hands, characters or animals appear on the screen.

These are ideal for children and create a lot of fun.

By playing with light and shadows, children develop their spatial awareness, learning about shapes, sizes, and dimensions. They also learn about cause and effect, discovering how moving an object in front of a light source changes the shadow it creates.

Let this be a part of your child’s games.

Hold your hand at a distance from the light, near the wall, where it will cast a small, clear shadow. Ask children to describe what they see. Talk about what makes the shadow.

A bedside lamp or table lamp works perfectly. Put one hand between the light and the wall so that you can clearly see the shadow of your hand. Then, simply by changing the shape of your hand, you can make animals, birds, and other characters come to life.

 The benefits of light and shadow play go beyond just creativity. They also help children develop important skills that will serve them well in the future.

Check here to learn how to make hand shadows with your child and related books and videos 

(This blogpost is a part of Blogchatter's Bloghop.


Saturday 13 July 2024





Proofreading means carefully checking for errors in a text before it is published or shared. It is the very last stage of the writing process when you fix minor spelling and punctuation mistakes, typos, formatting issues, and inconsistencies.

 Proofreading is important when you need your document to be checked for errors in grammar, punctuation, syntax, spelling, and formatting. Therefore, the task of proofreading necessitates language expertise to detect and correct errors in grammar, punctuation, syntax, spelling, and vocabulary.

When an alteration is desired in a character, word or words, the existing character, word or words should be struck through, and the character to be substituted written in the margin followed by a /.

Put simply, proofreading marks are the shorthand symbols used by proofreaders to identify errors in a text. They are also used to give suggestions or point out formatting issues. Proofreading marks are usually left in the margins or within the text itself.

 Proof correction marks are crucial in proofreading and typesetting books and other publications. These tiny symbols correct errors in the text and indicate necessary changes to the document's layout or formatting. When proof readers encounter mistakes within a text, they use marks to signal their presence.

Minor corrections to formatting, such as applying italics to a non-English word in line with style guide requirements, are a common part of proofreading.

Proofreading marks are important when correcting hard or printed copies of writing. Because they are universally understood, succinct, and precise, proofreading marks streamline the editing and revision phases of writing.

Friday 12 July 2024


Sweets are sweets, no matter where or how it is prepared. Everyone loves to have it in some way or the other especially people with a sweet tooth. A sweet tooth is a taste for sweet, sugary food. A love for sugary foods. Most people who profess to have a sweet tooth are big fans of desserts.

Here is a book on Indian sweets tracing back their history, preparation techniques, variations in their style &taste, worldwide recognition, and distinct makers throughout India.  

The book of sweets is a full platter with 20 different traditional Indian sweets which were mostly the contributors' favourites.

The origin of sweets in the Indian subcontinent has been traced to at least 500 BCE when, records suggest, both raw sugar (gur, vellam, jaggery) and refined sugar (sarkara) were being produced. By 300 BCE, kingdom officials in India were acknowledging five kinds of sugar in official documents.

The document discusses Indian sweets, known as 'mithai'. It notes that sweets are an important part of Indian culture and celebrations. A wide variety of ingredients are used to make Indian sweets, which are heavier and more intense than Western desserts due to the use of ingredients like ghee and condensed milk.

 Ancient Sanskrit literature from India mentions feasts and offerings of mithas (sweet). Rigveda mentions a sweet cake made of barley called apÅ«pa, where barley flour was either fried in ghee or boiled in water, and then dipped in honey. Malpua preserves both the name and the essentials of this preparation.

Indian desserts have a long history, dating back to ancient times. In ancient India, sweet dishes were made using honey, jaggery, and fruits. Milk-based desserts became popular during the Mughal era, which brought Persian influence to Indian cuisine.

The arrival of the Mughals in the early 16th century played a significant role in the evolution of sweets and mithai in the Indian subcontinent. Recipes featuring (then) luxurious ingredients like saffron, nuts, dried fruits, and rose water were now at the fingertips of confectioners and chefs alike.

Here in this book sweet dishes made using date palm jaggery finds place more often. How the sweet dishes found the route to the Homes of a common man from the Royal kitchens can be understood with elaborate information attached to each sweet.

Sweets are an important part of religious ceremonies and rituals. They are offered to the gods as a symbol of devotion and reverence. In some cultures, sweets are also distributed among the devotees as prasad or a blessing from the gods. Sweets are believed to bring good luck, peace, happiness, and prosperity.

Apart from these, the book carries the influence of sweets on arts, crafts, paintings, music, literature, movies, and many other areas of human life.

Traditional Indian sweets have gained significant recognition due to their widespread consumption and deep-rooted cultural significance. They have always held a special place in the diets of both Indians and people worldwide.

Secondly, the variety of ingredients used in Indian sweets is diverse and unique. From milk and ghee to nuts and fruits, Indian sweets are made with a wide range of ingredients, giving them a rich and indulgent taste. This variety of ingredients also reflects the diverse and vibrant culture of our country.

India has had a long and rich tradition of sweets or 'mithais,' and they have an eternal significance in Indian culture. Sweets signify happiness, celebration, good omen, & prosperity. No festival, ceremony, or occasion can be complete without Indian sweets.

 If someone is not allowed to have sweets, that will be very sad no? Read this

Whether it's a wedding, a festival, or a special milestone, sweets are believed to bring good fortune and prosperity to the individual and their loved ones. The act of sharing and consuming sweets during these occasions is seen as a gesture of spreading happiness and blessings.

  In this book though trivia, world records, postal covers on sweets, and a steamer in a museum that was used to prepare modak were all enjoyable ones as far as they are about sweets. Isn’t it?

Then wait no more, buy a copy of the book, and get to know more about sweets.

(Received a Kindle copy of the book from the Samata Dey Bose in return of an honest review)

Thursday 11 July 2024



Author: Daniel Huerga

Genre: Children &Young Adult

Publisher:  Mandu Books

Book Buy Link: @Amazon


Generally in a science classroom, we talk about Solids, Liquids, and Gases. Gas is well separated with no regular arrangement. Liquid are close together with no regular arrangement. Solid are tightly packed, usually in a regular pattern.

A solid has a definite volume and shape, a liquid has a definite volume but no definite shape, and gas has neither a definite volume nor shape.

Then why we are talking about these here? YES, what you heard is right. There is a slight link between these two. Here and there.

 Frankie – the fart and the gas

You know what is a gas.

Let us know who is Frankie?

Frankie is a fart.

Flatus is generated by swallowed air, digestion, high-fiber foods and the by-products of intestinal bacteria. Some digestive system disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, can produce excess gas.

 Yes, farting is healthy. It's natural for extra air to end up in the digestive system, either from swallowing air or gas created during digestion. Farting is a normal way to get rid of the extra gas. It is normal to fart up to 25 times per day.

Now you are clear about Frankie.

Frankie is in dire need of a friend. Who doesn’t need a friend?

While might feel like you don't need friends to be happy, it is important to have people you can trust and can turn to when you need support. People are social creatures and tend to thrive when they have high-quality connections with other people.

Friends can help you celebrate good times and provide support during bad times. Friends prevent isolation and loneliness and give you a chance to offer needed companionship, too. Friends can also: Increase your sense of belonging and purpose.

The book Frankie – the fart Wants a Friend is a Funny Story of Friendship and Acceptance for Kids by Daniel Huerga.  He is an experienced educator with nearly a decade of teaching and currently resides in South Korea with his wife and fluffy companion. His passion for children and the delightful stories that unfold in the classroom inspired him to become a children's book author. Through heartwarming and humorous tales, he aims to spread joy and laughter to young readers around the globe.

The colourful illustration by David Kantrowitz supports well and matches the flow of the story. These eye-catching illustrations add more depth to the search of Frankie for a friend.

Frankie who wants to make friends meets people, spends time with them, and follows up—whatever it takes to stay connected. Despite all these will Frankie be able to make friends? Why a few don’t like Frankie? Why they don’t accept Frankie as a friend?

When you accept people for who they are, you let go of your desire to change them. You let them feel the way they want to feel, you let them be different and think differently from you. Everyone is different in one way or the other. Acceptance starts with perceiving reality as it is right now: what people are rather than what you want them to be.

Do make a definite read to know who finally makes friends with Frankie.



      The noun century comes from the Latin word centuria, which was a group of 100, particularly a group of 100 Roman soldiers (one of 16...