Earth is such a mine, that beholds in itself many precious rocks & stones which bear a great value in terms of money. They are natural treasures, which are made into fine gem s, fit to be adorned in the jewels. Gems are considered to be a rich possession. According to the Indian context, there are nine precious gems (NAVARATNAS) Nava means 9 in number, Ratnas means gems in Hindi &Sanskrit language .
Diamonds are the costliest of all Gems. Diamonds are universally accepted as great because of their grandeur and grand histories. Diamond is a precious stone consisting of a clear, colourless form of pure carbon, the hardest naturally occurring substance.
THE CULLINAN I -530.20 carats, is the largest cut diamond in the world. Pear shaped, it is set in the royal sceptre. “ THE GREAT STAR OF AFRICA” is the title to the Diamond as it is the largest cut stone originating from the Great cullinan diamond found in South Africa. The nation of South Africa presented this diamond to the king EDWARD VII of England as a birthday gift.
THE REGENT – 410 carats, discovered in India in 1698. It was with the then Governor of Madras. The regent was purchased for the French crown. It was first adorned by Louis XV.
THE ORLOFF – 190 carats, is a rare rose cut gem . Evidences state that this diamond may have originated in India. Presently it is the crown jewels of Russia.
KOH-I-NOOR- 105.60 carats, a oval brilliant cut, is set in the Maltese cross, a platinum crown designed for Queen Elizabeth II for her 1937 coronation.
THE KASI KCI- SPOONMAKER-86 carats, is a pear shaped diamond. The pride of the Topkapi palace Museum, Istanbul.
THE IDOL’S EYE- 70.20 carats, is described as “ a splendid large diamond known as the idol’s eye set round with 18 smaller brilliants and a frame work of small brilliants.”
THE TAYLOR- BURTON- 69.42 carats, is founded in Southafrica, is a pear shaped diamond. This was purchased by actors of Hollywood- Richard Burton &Elizabeth Taylor.
THE SANCY- 55.23 carats, it is a pale yellow & shield shaped stone of Indian origin. This is the first large diamonds tp be cut with symmetrical facets. This was purchased by Nicholas Harlai, the seigneur de sancy who was an avid collector of gems and jewellery.
THE BLUE HOPE- 45.52 carats, the most famous coloured diamond in the world. This too holds the chances of its origin in India. The world’s most legendary gem is at Smithsonian.
THE DRESDEN GREEN- 41 carats, its origin may be traced back to 18 th century, founded in Golconda, India. The diamond got its name from the capital city of Saxony (Dresden) in Germany. It is a natural colour fancy green diamond, pear shaped & chemically pure.
THE HORTENSIA -20 carats, is a pale orangey pink cut on five sides. It takes its name from Queen of Holland. Louis XIV was responsible for the addition of this diamond to the crown jewels of France.
PUMPKIN DIAMOND- 5.54 carats, cushion shaped diamond. This was founded in Central African Republic.
These are the few details about the various diamonds around the world. Gemmologists grade the diamonds basing on their weight & clarity.