Tuesday, 23 January 2018


                                   image of papaya tree के लिए इमेज परिणाम

PAPAYA fruit is quite well known to every one and papaya tree is found in almost every household of south Indian villages. Papaya, when fully ripe is soft and orange in colour. It is usually eaten raw after removing the skin and seeds. The unripe papaya is green in colour and used in various dishes.

                                           image of papaya के लिए इमेज परिणाम

Papaya jam and papaya jelly is also prepared due to its pectin content. Papaya is rich in vitamin C and its antioxidant qualities provides many health benefits if consumed regularly. Papaya is avoided during pregnancy.

                                            image of papaya के लिए इमेज परिणाम

 A few points of good health from pulpy papaya are:
·             *       Papaya aids in digestion
·            *        Papaya prevents infections
·               *    Improves heart health
·             *      Helps reduce weight.

                            image of papaya के लिए इमेज परिणाम 

 To store papaya for longer time and to have papaya during meals, PAPAYA -CHUTNEY is     prepared in a traditional way. Let’s see how it is done………….

1.      Select plant ripened papaya
2.      Wash it  in cold water
3.      Peel and cut the papaya into small pieces after discarding the seeds.
4.      Cut onions finely and chop garlic
5.      Mix papaya with onions and garlic, add sugar, red chillies powder, salt and vinegar
6.      Boil gently till the chutney becomes thick.
7.      Then allow the chutney to cool and transfer it into air tight container or bottles

8.      Use wide mouthed bottles or jars to store the chutney.

Monday, 22 January 2018


                                           image of mending of linen के लिए इमेज परिणाम

Linen is basically a cloth made of Flax. Flax is a blue-flowered plant, from its stem a textile fibre is made and termed as Linen, especially articles like sheets & table cloths.Any cloth has a chance of subject to tear, few have a chance to mend, when the accident’s impact is small or else the whole cloth is of no use.

Mending is an art of preparing any article of wearing-house hold or bed linen by means of patching or darning. The ability to mend the valuable is also a means of saving. The article in use to make it last longer. Most valuable work in mending is done in cases where the damage is in a small area and the rest of the garment is in good condition.

The most common method of preparing a garment is 1.Darning 2.patching. These two requires thread, needle and fabric.

                                          image of darning के लिए इमेज परिणाम

 DARNING:  A good ‘Darning’ should be made as soon as the torn part is noticed and before it is extended over the thin area around the hole, if any.
One darning wart on the wrong side, wearing in and out the fibres of fabric, making small stiches. Then the same procedure is carried out even at the darning stiches. The thread should not be pulled too tightly and loops should be left of the threads at the end.
If there is cross out, make the stiches along the straight grain, darning the two ends together on a triangular tear. Make stiches in straight grain keeping the slit together and then once again work at the right angles to the stiches over the cut.

                                 image of patching के लिए इमेज परिणाम

PATCHING: This is done when “Darning” cannot be made. The tear on the garment is cut neatly, made into a square, a material of the same colour and type should be taken as the patching material and should be bigger than the tear. Eg. If the square cut around the tear is 3 cm, 2 cm extra on all sides is placed on the patching material, so that it will be 7 cm.
Place the patching material behind the square &stitch the edges by back stitch often cautiously watching that the patch material should slightly extend the square edge. Go around with back stitch, often cutting the corners. For turning on fabrics, turn to wrong side and trim the garment to within quarter of an inch of the stitching. Then fasten the edge also with herring bone stitch.

For a printed material, care must be taken that the design is continuous, cut the patch according to the grain of the material, turn under the edges of the patch and press them, Place the patch in position on the right side of the garment, Matching the patch in position on the right side of the edges on the wrong sides, from the edges and bottom hole the turnings.

Tuesday, 16 January 2018


Generally house is a place where people live and they set or decorate the house according to their taste or interest. The maintenance work is of great importance which keeps the house fit to stay in. In spite of cleaning and maintenance sometimes few house hold pests create damage &disturbance to the house as well as to certain articles.
 The common house hold pests are moths, carpet beetles, the common furniture beetle, fleas, bedbugs, sliver fish, rats &mice, cockroaches and flies.

                                  image of moths के लिए इमेज परिणाम

1. MOTHS: Moth is of a pale buff colour, are seen flying mainly between June and October, they are relatively small with a wing. The materials which are attacked by moth are wool, fur skins and feathers and those which are made of rubber, man-made and vegetable fibres. The following are the articles that need protection from damage by moth are:
1.    Blankets, bedding and quilts
2.     Carpets and underfelts
3.    Upholstered furniture and curtains
4.    Stuffed animals and birds i.e. fur and feathers.
Damage by moth most frequently occurs during storage as moths like warmth, darkness and lack of disturbance and so all articles to be stored, should be clean and protected by a moth detergent. Commonly used moth detergents are Naphthalene, camphor tablets and  while many insecticides are used to kill the pests

                    image of carpet beetles के लिए इमेज परिणाम         

2. CARPET BEETLES : The varied carpet beetle 2-4 cm long , lays egg in old bird’s nests, fabrics and accumulated fluffy in buildings. Carpet beetles have become the major textile pest and now do more damages than moths. The damage consists of fairly well defined round holes along the seams of fabrics where the larvae have bitten through the threads
Frequent vacuum cleaning of fluff and debris from storage cupboards, floor boards, carpets and upholstery is the main means of control. Insect killing powders may be sprayed between floorboards, under felts and is sprayed where fluff may collect and attack larvae.
Wood boring beetles can be linked to moths. The common furniture beetle lay about 20-60 eggs in cracks and crevices of polished wood, Eg: Flooring panels back of wardrobes and chests of drawers.

                             image of fleas के लिए इमेज परिणाम

3.FLEAS:  There are many different kinds of fleas and each has a preference for one kind of host. Fleas bite their host causing annoyance and in the humans large red itching spots on the skin.
Fleas are able to cover considerable destructions owing to jumping powders. They like darkness and warmth and are capable of laying a large number of eggs generally in the cracks of the floors.
Spraying with insecticides is a suitable way of eradicating them.

image of bed bugs silverfish के लिए इमेज परिणाम        image of bed bugs silverfish के लिए इमेज परिणाम

4. BED BUGS &SLIVER FISH:  Bed bugs may be seen in second hand furniture, bedding, books and under the wooden lathes of trunks. Bed bugs are about 0.5cm long and 0.3 cm wide, reddish brown in colour. By nature they feed by sucking human blood. Their bites cause considerable irritation and may result in large red patches with swelling on some people.

Sliver fish is mostly found in books and other old wood items. They need to be dusted at regular intervals and wood polishes can be applied if the wood has lost it freshness.

Bed bugs may be prevented by regular cleaning of cup boards and surroundings. Sinks, pipes should also be checked and insecticidal powders can be sprinkled where bedbugs &sliver fish are seen.

                                   image of rats & mice के लिए इमेज परिणाम

5. RATS & MICE: Rats, mice are more likely to be found in the kitchen and cleanliness of all areas where food is handled are important points in the prevention of infestation. Rats and mice may be destroyed with poisons.

                            image of cockroach के लिए इमेज परिणाम
6. COCKROACHES: Cockroaches are more likely to be found in the kitchen &dining hall rather than in bed rooms. Sprays and insecticides should be used regularly. Avoiding excess dump and clutter helps to reduce the cockroaches.