Wednesday, 19 February 2020

SIX POINTS ON HONEY COMB MOULD




1.    Prepare a custard with the yolk of egg, sugar and milk
2.    Add gelatine dissolved in warm water
3.    Allow to cool and add the flavouring
4.    Beat whites of eggs very stiffly and fold into the custard
5.    Keep bowl over ice or cold water and stir occasionally
6.    When on the point of setting, pour into a wet mould and leave to set in the refrigerator

Tuesday, 18 February 2020

LIST OF INSTRUMENTS USED IN INDIAN MUSIC


                                       Image result for image of indian musical instruments




1.    Veena – Vichitra veena, Rudra veens, Mukha veena, Chitra veena
2.    Sitar
3.    Sarod
4.    Surbahar
5.    Rabab
6.    Table
7.    Pakhawaj
8.    Mridangam
9.    Kanjira
10.  Ghatam
11.  Morsing
12.   Tavil
13.   Tarshahnai
14.   Violin
15.  Viola
16  Sarangi
17.   Esraj
18.  Dilruba
19.   Flute
20.  Clarionet
21. Shahnai
22.  Sundari
23.  Guitar – hawain guitar, electric guitar,
24.  Santoor
25. Mandolin
26.   Jal tarang
27.   Nadaswaram
28. Braham vadya
29.  Chello
30.   Taus
31.  Dholak
32.   Nakkara
33.   Dotara
34.   Harmonium
35.  Sri khol
36. Mardal
37.  Hurka
38.  Algoja
39.  Ravan hattha
40.  Electronic keyboard
41. saxophone

Monday, 17 February 2020

NINE POINTS ON COFFEE MOUSSE




1.    Soak gelatine in a little warm water for 15 minutes
2.    Separate yolks and whites of eggs
3.    Beat yolk and sugar thoroughly
4.    Warm milk and pour over the mixture
5.    Put in double sauce pan over low flame and cook till it gets custard thickness
6.    Remove from fire and add dissolved gelatine and coffee essence
7.    Cool and fold in stiffly beaten whites of eggs.
8.    Set in refrigerator
9.    Turn out and decorate with whipped cream and glace cherries.

Sunday, 16 February 2020

ELEVEN CHIEF AUTHORS OF THE AGE OF TRANSITION




1.    Thomson -1700-48
2.    Collins – 1721-59
3.    Gray – 1716-71
4.    Cowper -1731-1800
5.    Burns – 1759-96
6.    Richardson – 1689-1761
7.     Fielding – 1707-54
8.    Johnson – 1709-84
9.    Goldsmith -1728-74
10. Gibbon -1737-94
11. Burke – 1729-97


Saturday, 15 February 2020

EIGHT POINTS ON CABINET PUDDING




1.    Butter the pudding mould and decorate bottom and sides with nuts and sultanas
2.    Butter slices of bread, cut off the crust and cut the bread into cubes.
3.    Arrange a layer of bread into a prepared mould and sprinkle with sultanas and sugar
4.    Continue in layers till mould is half full
5.    Beat eggs in a bowl. Boil milk and pour over beaten eggs stirring well. Add flavouring and a little sugar
6.    Pour  over bread and let it stand for half an hour to soak bread thoroughly
7.    Cover mould with butter paper and steam for one hour
8.    Turn out and serve hot with sugar, jam or custard sauce.


Friday, 14 February 2020

A STUDY ON LULLABY AND THALATTU



                                        Image result for image of a mother and baby singing lullaby



Golden slumbers fill your eyes
Smiles awake you when you rise
Sleep pretty darling do not cry
And I will sing you a Lullaby.

  (THE BEATLES)

Lullaby or a cradle song is a well- known term and almost synonymous with mothers. The love and care a Mother showers on her baby is immense and cannot be put into words. There are many Lullabies penned by world famous writers of almost all world languages. Lullaby in English Literature comes under the genre of poetry.

Sleep little baby, clean as a nut,
Your fingers uncurl and your eyes are shut
Your life was ours, which is with you
Go on your journey we go too.

The bat is flying round the house
Like an umbrella turned into a mouse
The moon is astonished and so are the sleep
Their bells have come to send you to sleep

Oh be our rest, our hopeful start
Turn your head to my beating heart
Sleep little baby, clean as a nut
 Your fingers uncurl and your eyes are shut

(Lullaby by John Fuller)


The definition of a lullaby is a quiet or soothing song intended to get a child to go to sleep. According to Webster dictionary lullaby derives from the two earlier English words that were both used to soothe children- “”lulla”” and “”bye””. They were combined in the late 1500 s to refer specifically to a song used to calm the children or put them to sleep.

  An Article by Nina Perry in January 2013 published by BBC titled “”THE Universal language of lullabies”” brings forth the origin and development of lullabies. One of the oldest known lullabies is a 5,000 year old Babylonian song.   It is written in cuneiform script, one of the first forms of writings. This was written on a small clay tablet and now it is kept in the British Museum, London. Threatening themes were also used in the lullabies. I quote “”Rhythmically there are shared patterns too .Lullabies are usually in Triple metre or 6/8 time, giving them a “”Characteristic swinging or rocking motion. This is soothing because it mimics the movement a baby experiences in the womb as a mother moves. Says sally Goddard Blythe

 The purpose of the lullabies varies. In some societies they are used to pass down cultural knowledge or tradition. Lorca’s theory- which many researches today would agree with –was that a large part of the function of the lullaby is to help a Mother vocalise her worries and concerns. In short, they serve as therapy for the Mother.

Old English lullaby by Eugene Field, Richard Row Lands’s   Lullaby, Lullaby, oh, Lullaby! by Christina Georgina Rossetti,  W. H. Auden’s Lullaby and Mary D. Brine’s “”Mother and baby” are the few best examples of Lullaby poems.  Elizabeth Bishop’s Lullaby for the cat is Note-worthy.

“”Minnow, go to sleep and dream,
Close your great big eyes;
Round your bed events prepare
The pleasantest surprise.

Darling Minnow, drop that frown,
Just cooperate,
Not a kitten shall be drowned
In the Marxist State.

Joy and love will both be yours,
Minnow, don’t be glum.
Happy days are coming soon…
Sleep, and let them come…


The above Lullaby proves that Lullaby is not only sung by a mother for her baby, but also by a master to her pet. One more special Lullaby comes from a poet for his king. This is evident from the article titled ”Lullaby for a King “by Charumathi Ramachandran, published in the Friday review of January 2013 in the daily THE HINDU. In the 18th Century a famous court poet of Travancore Iraiyammam Thampi wrote a Malayalam song, a lullaby in praise of the baby prince. The baby prince is none other than the Maharaja Swathi Thirunal. The song is ‘’Omanathingal Kidavo”.

The lullaby of the English Literature finds place in Tamil Literature as THALATTU.  It is one of the major components of PILLAI THAMIZH OF CHITTRILAKKIYAM. This can be found in the Nalayira Divya Prabandham in which Periya alwar being a devotee, treats himself as Yasodha(the mother of Lord Krishna) and sings THALATTU to Lord Krishna.

Periyaalwar was the incarnation of Garuda the Lord of birds and divine vehicle of Lord Vishnu. He was born to his parents Padma and Mukunda at Srivilliputhur. He had enthralled the divine assembly of Sri Vallabha Deva, the King of Pandya Naadu, by establishing the Visishtadvaitic concepts. He was an ardent devotee of Lord Ranganatha who is residing as Vatapathra Saayee at Srivilliputthur.  Periyaalwar’ THALATTU titled “Manikkam Katti”, can be found in the first canto of his Thirumozhi.  There are about ten stanzas all describing about the graceful form of the child Krishna, his cradle, ornaments, weapons etc.,

Maanikkam katti vayiram Idai katti
Aanip ponnaal cheidha vannach chiru thottil
Peni unakku biraman vidu thandhaan
Maanik kuralane thaalelo, Vaiyam alandhaane thaalelo.

In the same way Kulashekar Alawar a devotee of the Lord, treats himself as Kousalya (The mother of Lord Rama) and sings THALATTU to Lord Rama.

Kulasekhara Alwar was the incarnation of Vanamaalaa, the divine garland of Lord Vishnu. He was born to the King DhrudaVratha who ruled the state Vanjikkalam of which Kolli Nagaram was the capital, the present Kerala. He was an ardent devotee of Lord Rama. He has composed one hundred and five stanzas titled with Perumal Thirumozhi. In these, eleven stanzas were THALLATU, titled “Mannu Pugazh”.  It deals with the glory of Ramaavathara.

Mannu pugazhk kausalai than mani vayiru vaaitthavane
Thennilangaik kon mudigal sindhuvitthai sempon ser
Kanni nan madhil pudai soozh kanapuratthen kan maniye
Ennudaiya Innamudhe Iraaghavane thaalelo.

 This ensures that THALATTU is sung to make the loved ones sleep. Many modern poets of Tamil language also wrote THALATTU. Lyricists too have written numerous film songs on the theme of THALATTU. Almost in all Indian languages, saint poets have composed krithis on their devoted Lord. The celebrated Saint Annamayya has composed a Lullaby said to be Jola paata in Telugu as Jo Achyuthaanantha jo jo Mukundha.

THALATTU or LULLABY, whatever name is applied, it is inseparable from human lives.

Aaraaro ariraro
Aaraaro ariraro

Aaradichu Nee Azhudaai
Kanmaniye kann urangu

Maaman Aditthaano
Mallip pooch chendaale

Annan Aditthano
Aavaaram kombaale

Pacchai Iluppai vetti
Pavalak kaal thottil ittu
Pavalak kaal thottilile
Balakane Nee urangu

Kattip pasum ponne – kanne nee
Chitthirap poon thottilile
Siriyamma siricchidu –kanne nee
Chitthirap poon thottilile

Thursday, 13 February 2020

LIST OF MAJOR TRAVELOGUES




1.     The Travels of Sir John Maundevill by Sir John Maundevill
2.     The Unfortunate Traveller or The Life of Jack Wilton by Thomas Nashe
3.     Robinson Crusoe and Mall Flanders by Daniel Defoe
4.     Gulliver’s Travels by Jonathan Swift.

SIX POINTS ON HONEY COMB MOULD

1.     Prepare a custard with the yolk of egg, sugar and milk 2.     Add gelatine dissolved in warm water 3.     Allow to cool and ...